Welcome to your I/O Quiz 08 Your Name 1. Motivation is defined as the degree of ambition exhibited by a worker. physiological brain activity. the force that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior. a measure of how hard a person works.2. Allowing outstanding employees to leave work early is an example of the use of negative reinforcement job enrichment. positive reinforcement. punishment.3. A salesperson who is paid through bonuses given when the boss can afford them is being reinforced using a variable interval schedule. fixed interval schedule. variable ratio schedule. fixed ratio schedule.4. Alderfer’s existence needs are similar to Maslow’s esteem needs. physiological needs. psychological needs. social needs.5. Research has indicated that the setting of specific, challenging goals may increase worker satisfaction. lead to dismayed and discouraged workers. stimulate high-quality planning by workers. lead to increased communication between coworkers.6. In general, organizational behavior modification has led to increases in worker motivation. led to increases in organizational commitment. failed to increase worker satisfaction. failed to increase worker motivation.7. According to Herzberg, motivators are related to __________, whereas hygienes are related to __________. job content . . . job context intrinsic reinforcement . . . extrinsic reinforcement job context . . . job content job dissatisfaction . . . job satisfaction8. According to Hackman and Oldham, skill variety, task identity, and task significance all affect workers’ perceptions of the amount of feedback they should receive. their degree of organizational commitment. the meaningfulness of their work. their autonomy in their work.9. Job enrichment is an application based on Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation. the job characteristics model. behavior-based theories of motivation. both Herzberg’s two-factor theory and the job characteristics model.10. According to McClelland, workers who are happiest when working as part of a team may have a high need for achievement. power. growth. affiliation.